Posts Tagged ‘writing tips’

Tips for Writing: Fact vs. Opinion

January 14, 2010 Leave a comment

Information is regarded as one of the most highly valued resources found on the planet today. Often, the organization with the most reliable information comes out ahead in whatever endeavor in which the organization is specialized. Information can be separated into two categories: fact and opinion. The real question is, however, what differentiates fact and opinion?
Fact can be defined generally as a piece of information that has an objective reality. This means that  information presented in an unbiased way that stands up under scrutiny can be regarded as fact. Because factual information is verifiable under unbiased scrutiny, it can be generally regarded as truth. Facts are outright statements of observable truths, such as the sky is blue. This indisputable as anyone can look up into the sky and see that it is blue. Further, to silence any possible criticism of this statement, science has verified that the molecules that form our atmosphere reflect blue light-giving the sky its blue color.

Opinion is defined as a view, judgment, or appraisal that is formed in one’s mind. Further, an opinion is a belief that is stronger than an impression but less strong that positive knowledge, or a generally held view. Opinion is the prevalent force behind much of the information that governs the majority of the interactions that occur in the daily lives of people. This information type is not necessarily based on objective informational analysis. Rather, opinion is subjectively based; therefore, governed by perception rather than stone cold fact. We see opinions on the news, in political and religious discourse, and in our everyday work environments. Everyone has an opinion and many times these are not solidly based in fact, rather they are based upon individual perception.

At what point does an opinion become fact? The scientific method is useful for explaining this phenomenon. Within this method, a researcher makes an observation. Then, he or she forms an opinion of what the root cause of the observation is. This opinion is then tested. If it stands up under scrutiny, can be repeated, and is verified by third-party sourcing, the opinion then can be generally stated as a fact.

At this point, fact an opinion seem extremely straight forward. The bigger question within the difference between fact and opinion is whether the line that separates the categories is black and white or is it something altogether different? Does the possibility exist that the line between these two categories of information is actually blurred? In many cases of fact, such as in the example of the blue sky, the evidence can be verified on a widely accepted level, but has there ever been a time where perceived fact has been proven wrong?

Aristotle theorized that the Earth was the center of the universe. He supported his theory with seemingly verifiable evidence going as far as to explain the rotation of the Sun, Moon, and stars around the Earth. His geocentric model was accepted as scientific fact until his theory was disproved after the invention of the telescope and the introduction of the heliocentric model of the universe. This irrevocably changed scientific fact into an outdated opinion.

The line between fact and opinion is one that is crossed everyday in every conversation and human interaction that occurs in our world. While fact can be obviously defined in some cases, fact and opinion blur together on subjects that cannot be conclusively verified. Where fact ends and opinion begins must be scrutinized on a case by case basis.

Works Cited

Graff, G., Birkenstein, C., & Durst, R. (2009). The Moves That Matter In Academic Writing: They say I say (, pp. 463-481). New York: W.W. Norton & Company .


Tips For Writing: Effective Communication

January 11, 2010 Leave a comment
The art of communication is often overlooked in today’s society. The ability for the populous at large to communicate within the bounds of  the every day interaction between people has slowly declined over the last several decades. There are a myriad of factors that could be causative to this issue, but the overarching effect is simply that people are not as adept with communication as they once were, whether it be written or spoken.

One of the major issues plaguing every day interaction is rooted within people’s inability to plan the full discourse of a document or speech prior to the presentation. As with the example of Dr. X, a one sided biases speaker,  found within The Moves That Matter In Academic Writing: They say I say , we see that a communicative presentation loses much of its effectiveness when the author fails to equally present both sides of an issue, or, at the very least, introduce the opposing view of the opinion that the communicator is attempting to present.

Objectivity within communication is achieved when the communicator effectively presents both sides of an issue without presenting a personal bias. It is a quality that is highly regarded in journalism, but this writing quality can add much needed credence to any form of persuasive communication. When the presenter appears to be extremely knowledgeable on all sides of an issue, it enables the communicator convey his or her opinion in a more highly regarded manner, ensuring that the audience will at least consider the information presented. This is also a key element in writing an effective summary.

Summary is an effective tool within persuasive communication in which the presenter conveys the general ideas of another author on a specific subject while adding his or her stance on the particular issue being reviewed. This also lends to the presenter having a greater credibility with the audience. When an author is willing to present the opposite opinion of what he or she believes, it conveys confidence, which is imperative when attempting to engage the audience and to have the presented opinion be seriously considered.

With an increased awareness in the tools of strong communication, many of the daily communicative interactions between people would become much more effective, which would lead to a reversal of the general decline that communication has experienced over the last several decades. The only way to remedy this problem is through strong, relevant communication education presented in a way that will captivate audiences making them more likely to apply these principles in their day to day communication.

Works Cited

Graff, G., Birkenstein, C., & Durst, R. (2009). The Moves That Matter In Academic Writing: They say I say (, pp. 463-481). New York: W.W. Norton & Company .

Tips for Writing: Entering the Conversation

January 7, 2010 Leave a comment

When an author is embarking on a new literary quest, he or she must consider several different factors when planning an effective article. One of the most important factors that the author must take into account is which method of “entering the conversation” will be used in the paper to most effectively introduce his or her opinion. It is vital for the author establish the purpose of his or her discourse before attempting to dissect the subject at hand. After establishing the purpose, the author must consider the general body of work that has been done about the particular subject being written about. Once this has been mapped, the author has several different options when deciding how he or she will add their opinion to the general body of work that has been established regarding the subject of focus for the paper.

One of these options is clearly seen within the article “Fat as a Feminist Issue” by Susie Orbach. Within her article, she is tackling the issue of obesity in women; however, she is approaching the subject from a unique angle. This makes her argument something that “no one is talking about”. Orbach is introducing a completely new idea to the area of female obesity. She states that women eat compulsively and have become fat in order to break forth from the mold that society casts for their gender.

In this article, she is not necessarily responding to a specific argument for or against obesity in women. Instead, she is filling in a gap in the overall body of work for this issue and actually introducing a new idea as to why the percentage of obese women continues to grow in America. This technique is effective, but there are other options for authors that include stating what “they say” explicitly, which is extremely effective when introducing an alternate opinion. This is a strong technique because the author is able to address each argument that the opposition utilizes in a point-by-point writing style that allows he or she to introduce his or her counterpoint to each of these arguments.

This technique is used in the article “Being Fat is OK” by Paul Campos. Within this article, Campos is attacking the overall picture of how America defines obesity based on a system that uses the body mass index as the indicator for obesity and overall healthiness. He is also attacking those who claim that every overweight person would be better if he or she lost weight. The main thrust of his argument is the lack of scientific evidence that exists to support this argument. He explicitly states what the opposition says and then introduces his counterpoint in each example within the article. Another reason that this technique is effective is because it leaves no doubt what the author is attempting to communicate to the reader.

When the author is “entering the conversation” he or she must consider what mode of presentation will be most effective in relaying his or her specific contribution within the subject to the audience. Regardless of what method is ultimately chosen, it is overwhelmingly apparent that this specific aspect of writing can make or break a paper and must be given considerable weight during the planning phase for the article.

Works Cited

Graff, G., Birkenstein, C., & Durst, R. (2009). The Moves That Matter In Academic Writing: They say I say (, pp. 463-481). New York: W.W. Norton & Company .

Tips for Writing: “They Say” vs. “I say”

December 28, 2009 Leave a comment

When presenting a well balanced argument in writing, it is extremely important for the author to express as rounded a presentation as possible regarding the particular subject matter that the paper is addressing. This is accomplished in several ways, but, regardless of the subject matter or the presentation method, it is vital for the author to present all possible angles within the document in order to strengthen his or her argument.

In the text, The Moves That Matter In Academic Writing: They say, I say, two elements are initially presented that are essential to penning a well received argument. These elements are titled “I say” and “they say”. A simple summation of both topics would lead the reader to analyze the actual chapter titles. “I say” is simply what the author is attempting to support within the piece that he or she is writing, while “they say” is what others are saying regarding the subject. On the surface, these elements appear to be extremely simplistic and, superficially, they are, but the deeper one probes into the nuances that define how each of these concepts can be presented, the more overwhelming each principle can become. The question then becomes “what are these specific nuances?” and “how do they compare within each of the defined elements that are essential to effective communication?”

The first similarity is found within the actual written presentation tools that are used to relay the information that is pertinent to the reader. For example, summary is used in both the presentation of “I say” and “they say”; however, it is more prevalent within the element of “they say”. The reason that it is found more often within this element is because it is more important for the author to include fine detail when presenting his or her side of the argument.

While it is extremely important to include what others are saying about the topic of discussion, the point of an essay is for the author to add his or her thoughts on the particular subject matter. As one looks closer into each of the elements, it becomes clear that the lines defining “I say” and “they say” are not as black and white as one would initially believe.

The author can use many different methods to define his or her opinion on the subject matter within the paper, but it is important to establish what “they say” in order for the author to have a starting point for contributing his or her opinion.  The most common techniques used to accomplish this after what “they say” has been established are agreeing, disagreeing, or utilizing elements of both in order for the author to present his or her stance on the particular issue being discussed. When the author disagrees with the general consensus, he or she must present the reason for his or her disagreement with solid empirical evidence that supports his or her opinion. If the author neglects to present solid evidence that refutes what “they say”, then his or her opinion will be disregarded as strictly an opinion and will have no credibility within the academic world.

The same can be said for when the author generally agrees with the subject matter that he or she is writing about, because, even when the author agrees, there must be some point that the author is attempting to introduce that is different from the consensus opinion.  Otherwise, there the discourse of the paper would be utterly useless, recycled information. Therefore, even when the author agrees, he or she must be presenting a different view or adding information to the general body of work regarding the subject. This view also needs to be supported with clear and credible evidence.  

The most common manifestation of these principles within writing, however, occurs when an author both agrees and disagrees with specific points within the generally accepted consensus opinion regarding the subject being written about. This is prevalent when a particular subject has been widely researched for many years, and, due to this fact, many theories and opinions will have been given over the years, during the course of study. In that time, many of these theories and opinions will have come to be regarded as fact. At this point, it would be absurd to think that the well-versed author would not share some of the views that others have presented about the particular subject, but it is not unheard of for an author to disagree with several points within the general body of accepted opinions and theories regarding the subject. In order to showcase his or her opinion, an author will show support for the opinions that he or she agrees with and refute the opinions that the he or she does not support with strong analysis of empirical evidence.

Another important skill for an author to attain is the ability to make what “they say” into what “I say”. This occurs when an author strongly grasps and believes in a specific concept that another author has already presented and makes the general concept into his or her own either adding to, or slightly altering what was originally written. This technique can add credence to the author’s opinion as he or she is taking a generally accepted opinion and adding his or her own personal spin; therefore, creating his or her footprint within the generally accepted body of work about the particular subject.

Anytime an author asserts a new opinion into a field of study, he or she must be ready for the opinion to be dismantled and questioned. The mark of a veteran writer is evident when he or she is able to anticipate and counter many of the possible arguments that might be presented to refute his or her opinion within the text of the original document. When done properly, this allows the author’s opinion to garner a greater credibility and makes it much more difficult to disprove his or her opinion. This is a difficult skill to master, but it is essential when composing a strong paper that will hold up under scrutiny.

While the line between “I say” and “they say” might be slightly blurred at times, the importance of the inclusion of both elements into an effective essay cannot be overstated. Without these essential elements, any form of communication would be extremely lacking and would lose much of the credibility and peer acceptance that a dual-sided argument garners upon review and study.

Works Cited

Graff, G., Birkenstein, C., & Durst, R. (2009). The Moves That Matter In Academic Writing: They say I say (, pp. 463-481). New York: W.W. Norton & Company .